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RESEARCH:
2nd Year


The Concept of Space in Twentieth Century Art
Benjamin Muzzin, artist
Kit Webster artist
Thomas Wilfred

Bauhaus Ballet


Gary Hill artist

creativeapplications.net/inspiration/augmented-sculpture-inspiration/
creativeapplications.net/inspiration/enigmatica-inspiration/
creativeapplications.net/objects/full-turn-draws-third-dimension-using-a-flat-screen-rotating-at-high-speed/
aircord.co.j
https://vimeo.com/62353355
N3Dmove 

http://www.creativeapplications.net/maxmsp/n3-d-demo-openframeworks-maxmsp-objects/

http://www.geek.com/apple/i3dg-produces-3d-film-using-iphone-and-ipad-1295032/

http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-construct-iphone-hologram-device/step7/Mirror-Attachment/

http://www.designboom.com/technology/palm-top-theatre/

TED TALK, Stephen Hawking

The Contents of Experience: Essays on Perception

Telematic Art

Optical Molecular Imaging Laboratory

Amon Tobin

Wiley  Wiley

The Religious Thought of Francis Bacon


Are Telepathy Experiments Stunts or Science?

DAVID SPRIGGS 2

The Wormwood Star

Light Art from Artificial Light, ZKM Exhibition

Thomas Wilfred

Dana Saulnier, painter

How many universes are there? TED Conference

43 years blind, man regains sight

making of holographic projection

MIT Exhibition, Boston 2014

Codex Dynamic at DUMBO Arts 2012

Integrated Visions to launch Form and Substance, a Group Exhibition

Guide to Projectors for Interactive Installations
http://www.creativeapplications.net/tutorials/guide-to-projectors-for-interactive-installations/

Hybridity in new art

Hybridity, Walker Art


Painting with Light- video mapping software


Percision Optics / Optical Illusions
Painting with light, exhibition
http://www.lsi.upc.edu/~melslater/PEACH/presence-notes-melslater.pdf

ttp://ict.usc.edu/pubs/Ontological%20implications%20of%20Being%20in%20immersive%20virtual%20environments.pdf

http://www.abodewindowfilms.co.uk

http://www.davidspriggs.com/emergence-of-perception/


Olafur Eliasson
http://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork


Cognitive processes use existing knowledge and generate new knowledge.
http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/suppl/10.1162/LEON_a_00410#.VC5kT7JnG2x
http://www.looktel.com/recognizer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_vision
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/recognizing-spatial-intel/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcubsytKxdw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5J2lpe4GPQA
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_cognition
http://www.machinevision.co.uk
http://www.projectionfreak.com/codex-dynamic-at-dumbo-arts-2012
Projection mapping exh.:
http://form-substance.com

http://pwl.bigfug.com/news/painting-with-light-video-sculptures-open-call-for-artists/
guide to projectors as interactive installation:
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/slade/know/3672

Digital Hybridity in fine art 2d v 3d

identification of depth according to object observation.object is concrete and light and colour are temporary. the mind looks to distinguish shapes
/objects before anything else. Once the light atmosphere in the environment is acknowledged (ie day, night, indoor((the hue/tone in which all things/
objects in the environment will be affected)), then the identification of  objects must come next. Is this why natural landscapes that seem to have a 
pattern or regularity to them can, on a vast scale, be difficult to comprehend size properly. (grand canyon, an ocean) fractals what is ourfascination 
with depth. it is our most concrete form of reality in our world- when we manage to lose a sense of understanding of the physical depth in our world 
we experience conflicting brain messages and we lose our understanding of the concrete world and its compositional make up. how can a computer 
read an environment well enough to ‘replace’ vision for a blind person. There is the knowledge of how to do this to a certain extent but the computer 
power needed to process that amount of information at a speed fast enough to be useful in immediate circumstances is a very difficult thing to build. 
Dr. Patrick Soon-Shiong so is it that we now know how to build a cognitive ‘robot’ which can understand our world in the same way we do? Assistive 
technology and the study of it.Vision is possibly thought of as the most valued of all our senses. If we had to choose between vision and sight, agreed 
to be the most useful of all the senses in our lives, almost all of us would choose to lose our hearing over our sight. It is impossible to imagine being 
blind, and to most everyone just the idea of it is heart breaking. It is important to us to be able to look around our environment and recognise our place 
within it, and what is happening in any proximity that could effect us. We generally can feel some control of our environment if we want to. We see 
what is happening 3 blocks away on a city street, or ten miles away on a stormy sky. We see the world and know our physical place in it. We know this 
visually. We have taught ourselves how to read our environment through the way size, speed, light and colour effect the physical objects in our world. 
It is when objects are indefinable that we look to our memories of light and colour and focus to decide where they lie in depth of view. this is where some 
‘abstract’ painters can play with the composition and the way the reader will read it as a picture plane. tight lines keep everything separate and spacious 
and almost vacuous in the in-between spaces- while blurred edges will create atmosphere and density to the in-between spaces. is this because the depth is 
slightly lossed or because it is more connected to the space it sits in?

Digital Hybridity in fine art 2d v 3d
v
identification of depth according to object observation.object is concrete and light and colour are temporary. the mind looks to distinguish shapes
/objects before anything else. Once the light atmosphere in the environment is acknowledged (ie day, night, indoor((the hue/tone in which all things/objects 
in the environment will be affected)), then the identification of  objects must come next. Is this why natural landscapes that seem to have a pattern or regularity 
to them can, on a vast scale, be difficult to comprehend size properly. (grand canyon, an ocean) fractals what is our fascination with depth. it is our most concrete 
form of reality in our world- when we manage to lose a sense of understanding of the physical depth in our world we experience conflicting brain messages and 
we lose our understanding of the concrete world and its compositional make up. how can a computer read an environment well enough to ‘replace’ 
vision for a blind person. There is the knowledge of how to do this to a certain extent but the computer power needed to process that amount of information at a 
speed fast enough to be useful in immediate circumstances is a very difficult thing to build. Dr. Patrick Soon-Shiong so is it that we now know how to build a 
cognitive ‘robot’ which can understand our world in the same way we do? Assistive technology and the study of it.Vision is possibly thought of as the most valued 
of all our senses. If we had to choose between vision and sight, agreed to be the most useful of all the senses in our lives, almost all of us would choose to lose our hearing 
over our sight. It is impossible to imagine being blind, and to most everyone just the idea of it is heart breaking. It is important to us to be able to look 
around our environment and recognise our place within it, and what is happening in any proximity that could effect us. We generally can feel some 
control of our environment if we want to. We see what is happening 3 blocks away on a city street, or ten miles away on a stormy sky. We see the world 
and know our physical place in it. We know this visually. We have taught ourselves how to read our environment through the way size, speed, light 
and colour effect the physical objects in our world. It is when objects are indefinable that we look to our memories of light and 
colour and focus to decide where they lie in depth of view. this is where some ‘abstract’ painters can play with the composition and the way the 
reader will read it as a picture plane. tight lines keep everything separate and spacious and almost vacuous in the in-between spaces- while blurred edges 
will create atmosphere and density to the in-between spaces. is this because the depth is slightly lossed or because it is more connected to the space it sits in?


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2773440/Make-OWN-invisibility
-cloak-University-reveals-simple-trick-cloak-objects-using-glass-lenses.html

Software Takes Command, Lev Manovich





Hybridity and the loss of the physical
http://www.dazeddigital.com/artsandculture/article/15085/1/hybridity-in-new-art

Hybridity in Art Presently, human beings are immersed in a hybridised environment of reality and augmented reality on a daily basis, considering the proliferation of physical and digital media (i.e. print books vs. e-books, music downloads vs. physical formats). Many people attend performances intending to place a digital recording device between them and the performers, intentionally "layering a digital reality on top of the real world."[13] For artists working with and responding to new technologies, the hybridisation of physical and digital elements has become a reflexive reaction to this strange dichotomy.[14] For example, in Rooms by Sara Ludy computer-generated effects process physical spaces into abstractions, making familiar environments and items such as carpets, doors and windows disorientating, set to the sound of an industrial hum. In effect, the distinction between real and virtual space is deconstructed.[15][14]

Sensorium: Embodied Experience, Technology, and Contemporary Art: http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/sensorium 

Seeing Dark Things : The Philosophy of Shadows: The Philosophy of Shadows

 By Roy Sorensen
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=izFf2_gxYlMC&pg=PA142&lpg=PA142&dq=para-reflection&source=bl&ots=npTmrMhd60&sig=MSm9drXBRDZAxSobzb24hvNnsjM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=obIpVK91h-Vq7O-C8Ac&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=para-reflection&f=false


Duchamp's Anemic Cinema (rotoreliefs)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXINTf8kXCc


http://www.toutfait.com/issues/volume2/issue_5/articles/betancourt/betancourt.html

Fovea with mathmatical charts:
http://courses.washington.edu/psy333/lecture_pdfs/Week7_Day3.pdf
http://webvision.med.utah.edu/book/part-viii-gabac-receptors/space-perception/

Walter Benjamin: Optical Unconscious
http://www.arte-coa.pt/index.php?Language=en&Page=Saberes&SubPage=ComunicacaoELinguagemImagem&Menu2=Autores&Slide=39


Photography and the Optical Unconscious
http://www.torontophotographyseminar.org/news/photography-and-optical-unconscious


Images of History and the Optical Unconscious
http://www.nnet.gr/historein/historeinfiles/histvolumes/hist04/historein4-paschalidis.pdf


Seeing Upside Down- Experiment
http://www.theguardian.com/education/2012/nov/12/improbable-research-seeing-upside-down


Brain Vision Flip
http://www.scienceiq.com/Facts/BrainFlips.cfm


Light Art in Pinterest:
https://www.pinterest.com/aaronaleah/light-art/


Beau Lotto: Optical Illusion show how we see
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mf5otGNbkuc

TED Talk: Don't believe your lying eyes:
http://edition.cnn.com/2009/OPINION/10/26/lotto.optical.illusions/index.html?iref=24hours


Aviation and Optical Illusion:
http://www.customessaymeister.com/customessays/Aviation/19741.htm


Perceptual_Quality_of_3DTV_Systems by Varuna De Silva
https://www.academia.edu/876363/Improving_Perceptual_Quality_of_3DTV_Systems
 

Mike May on "seeing again" for the first time in 43 years (since he was 3):
http://www.afb.org/info/living-with-vision-loss/using-technology/interviews-with-technology-pioneers/mike-may/part-1-of-4-5503/12345
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2003/aug/26/genetics.g2
__________
______________________________________
Precision Optics/Optical Illusions, by Betancourt: 
on Duchamp: Optical illusions are an important part of his work because of their unusual characteristics: they present multiple 'interpretations' which cannot all be 'true' at the same time, but which are nevertheless 'correct' ways to see the work.
Visual forms of this 'class' offer a liminal experience--one where the process of seeing becomes visible in/through that process itself. The optical illusion is a liminal experience; it allows a visualization of the process of interpretation which is normally unconscious. Vision is rendered regressive by optical illusions. 
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THINGS TO MAKE:
two way mirror box with sculpture inside (oil on bottom side???) experiment:will light sufficiently travel up through water/oil onto the sculpture and still be a reflective surface when looking down into it?
large scale black cube installation
large scale double perspex illusion
create painting where a mirror is set up to reflect a busy environment- then paint, dirtily onto the mirror,  each bit of the mirror as you see it, letting it distort itself through the your movement around the mirror
panes of glass lined up one in front of the other (maybe 5) About 5 or so inches between them, and a light bulb on a track below that moves backward and forward. Each piece 
camera obscura in a box- use tracing paper
of glass has an etching of a figure or shape rotating from the center- so each bit of glass will show a different moment in the rotation. When the light goes badk and forward will this creat an illusion of movement and/or space?
Mirrors have the functions of clar- ification, multiplication, extension of space, complication, synthesis of forms, and transition. - Asakura p.73
______________
MIRROR NEURONS?
Media theorist, Anne Friedberg, compares vision strategies, “Although the algorithmic constructions found in video games, in quicktime panoramas, in virtual reality systems continue to rely on digital simulacra of perspectival space, not all digital space is designed to suggest three dimensions. Instead, the vernacular “space” of the computer screen has more in common with surfaces of cubism–frontality, suppression of depth, overlapping layers–than with the extended depth of Renaissance perspective.”14 The singular vantage point is already blended with memory fragments of previous perspectives (protention and retention15)Just as the internet enacted the Global Village11, media will continue to advance and the question of embodiment will become less relevant–the divide between image and physically present will become less discernible.
If all things are just light waves of object images projecting, traveling about– is the object everywhere?
For example, in the context of the course everyone regarded my digital smart object image as virtual, synthetic, fake; a copy, sign or symbol of a physical object, not an actual object in and of itself. Perhaps it’s the flatness of the object’s dimensional character or its intangibility that blocks one from seeing these digital objects as actual, but such an emphasis on tangibility becomes a form of blindness.:
Herein, Berger attempts to point out the way in which the object’s meaning changes and perhaps could be regarded as less valuable, but he continues to speak of the painting, in terms of a single object that travels and projects emanations of itself through the camera, the television, into a physical environment and ultimately to the eye of the viewer. Regardless of the shift in meaning, the object is described as one object that has a decentralized character and travels to reveal itself. Just as the object travels through electrical cables, to emit from a TV or computer screen, the object also travels through our consciousness from one person to another, until it garners more and more attention: making it more “real”, by means of agreement. 
reflection, refraction, projection essay
thoughts on above: this is similar to the way one reads a screen- and if they read the screen as ‘real life’ imagery or cgi imagery. do they need to know the difference, do they care? 
____________
Installation-One long piece of glass, down a corridor- each side of glass is cut off from the other by the glass window and a wall both above and below it, running th length of the room or corridor. The light in each side turns off an on (opposite to the other) or one side is neutral light and the other goes from black to very bright. - this would allow the glass to pivot from being seen as a mirror and a window 

SCULPTURE- an image made of mirrors collaged together angled differently so each mirror bit of collage reflects a different colour- maybe have this whole mirrored collage be reflected onto another mirror which is what the viewer looks at (or it reflects once more off another mirror in order for it to be viewed straight on by viewer.
?new interpretation of depth due to another level in interpretation that our retina must understand: flat has become 3d and 3d is in much of art theory analysed as a flat screen of colours. so we view a 3d world and in it a 2d screen which emulates 3d. with cgi any reality can be made on a 2d screen.
Ela Boyd: For example, in the context of the course everyone regarded my digital smart object image as virtual, synthetic, fake; a copy, sign or symbol of a physical object, not an actual object in and of itself. Perhaps it’s the flatness of the object’s dimensional character or its intangibility that blocks one from seeing these digital objects as actual, but such an emphasis on tangibility becomes a form of blindness.- Ela Boyd——But it could never be seen in two places at the same time. When the camera reproduces a painting, it destroys the uniqueness of its image. As a result, its meaning changes. Or, more exactly, its meaning multiplies and fragments into many meanings.Regardless of the shift in meaning, the object is described as one object that has a decentralized character and travels to reveal itself. Just as the object travels through electrical cables, to emit from a TV or computer screen, the object also travels through our consciousness from one person to another, until it garners more and more attention: making it more “real”, by means of agreement.—-This transmutates the dimensional form into an image back onto the dimensional form then into an appearance of a light image object that is both flat (on the wall) and dimensional (layers of light giving the appearance of depth). Moving from the 3d form into 2d back to 3d then to a mixed dimensional appearance is a strategy I will continue to explore within my practice.—-In this way it seems we both take in and project out imagery. As an artist, I’m fascinated by glass doors and windows that reflect light phenomena of their surrounding spaces. It’s as if these spaces are projecting outward from multiple directions simultaneously and its only captured via the glass, the screen, the metallic surface or the reflection.—Perspective makes the single eye the centre of the visible world.—Media theorist, Anne Friedberg, compares vision strategies, “Although the algorithmic constructions found in video games, in quicktime panoramas, in virtual reality systems continue to rely on digital simulacra of perspectival space, not all digital space is designed to suggest three dimensions. Instead, the vernacular “space” of the computer screen has more in common with surfaces of cubism–frontality, suppression of depth, overlapping layers–than with the extended depth of Renaissance perspective.”14— In the exhibition, the physical objects are mere mechanisms to reveal energetic light phenomena, which I have already asserted to be an actual object in itself. —Intersubjectivity happens in the in-between spaces, captured on the transparent screen or window.—Anne Friedberg writes on perspective within screens and windows: “The screens of cinema, television, and computers open “virtual windows” that ventilate the static materialities and temporalities of their viewers. A “windowed” multiplicity of perspectives implies new laws of “presence”–not only here and there, but also then and now–a multiple view–sometimes enhanced, sometimes diminished–out the window.”2
_______________

Merleau Ponty’s “la pensée de survol”
Global Village is a term closely associated with Marshall McLuhan,[1] popularized in his books The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962) and Understanding Media (1964). McLuhan described how the globe has been contracted into a village by electric technology[2] and the instantaneous movement of information from every quarter to every point at the same time.[3] In bringing all social and political functions together in a sudden implosion, electric speed heightened human awareness of responsibility to an intense degree.[4]

Husserl’s concept of Protention and Retention :Our experience of the world is not of a series of unconnected moments. Indeed, it would be impossible to have an experience of the world if we did not have a sense of temporality. That our perception brings an impression to our minds depends upon retention and protention.
Molyneux's problem is a thought experiment in philosophy concerning immediate recovery from blindness. It was first formulated by William Molyneux, and notably referenced in John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. The problem can be stated in brief, "if a man born blind can feel the differences between shapes such as spheres and cubes, could he similarly distinguish those objects by sight if given the ability to see?"[1]
The first known case of published recovery from blindness is in 1728, of a blind 13 year old boy by William Cheselden.[4] Cheselden presented the celebrated case of the boy of thirteen who gained his sight after removal of the lenses rendered opaque by cataract from birth. Despite his youth, the boy encountered profound difficulties with the simplest visual perceptions. Described by Cheselden:

When he first saw, he was so far from making any judgment of distances, that he thought all object whatever touched his eyes (as he expressed it) as what he felt did his skin, and thought no object so agreeable as those which were smooth and regular, though he could form no judgment of their shape, or guess what it was in any object that was pleasing to him: he knew not the shape of anything, nor any one thing from another, however different in shape or magnitude; but upon being told what things were, whose form he knew before from feeling, he would carefully observe, that he might know them again;[5]

A total of 66 early cases of patients who underwent cataract operations were reviewed by Marius von Senden in his German 1932 book, which was later translated into English under the title Space and sight.[6] In this book, von Senden argues that shapes, sizes, lengths and distances are difficult for blind people to judge, including for a time after their operation.
________________________________
Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.

In science and epistemology (the theory of knowledge), a paradigm /ˈpærədaɪm/ is a distinct concept or thought pattern.
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LIGHT: Interplay between reflection and projection within contemporary art—
intended and unintended- Gunters platen figures and relflections
Dan Flavin
Elliot Woods - kimchi and chips (possible interviewee)
Dava - cubes, projection mapping
Jonathan Ross 3D
digital verse traditional way of making holograms
multi channel (animated) holography


We have seven senses: 
        sight
        sound
        touch
        taste
        smell
        balance ('vestibular')
        body awareness (‘proprioception').
Poor depth perception; problems with throwing and catching; clumsiness.
Hyper Senesory:
        Noise can be magnified and sounds become distorted and muddled.
        Particularly sensitive to sound and can, for example hear conversations in the distance.
        Inability to cut out sounds – notably background noise, which often leads to difficulties concentrating.


Perception and Depth:

2 sets of allotropic paintings - one set which is 3d effective, the other which is the opposite. An introduction into our depth perception. The opposite effect is achieved by placing objects in from tot other objects in the painting and having that depth of knowledge be contradicted by staggering the above object further to the right (rather than the left -((why is the left not work and moving them to the right does)) A;so think about using lighting and shading/hueing to dress a sculpture so that is appears 3-d when it is flat or vice versa. Play with all things that help humans to perceive depth. Use projection mapping to demonstrate some of the deceptions that can arise from our knowledge and unawareness of our reading of depth perception. How can an image be skewed to subtly achieve this?

HOW IMPORTANT IS THE MATERIAL OBJECT IN ART?
pepper’s ghost
architectural elements used to create a rationally familiar set of components. These components are not rationally composed in the artwork. This is an underlying theme in my work. I experiment with boundaries between possible and impossible- whether it be through compositions in paintings, sculptures or video. I am creating an irrational reality out of rational, familiar components.
I am interested in the line between reality and non or virtual reality. When do we recognise or acknowledge that something is real, and that we have experienced it. Not through seeing a photo of the Grand Canyon can we say we have experienced the Grand Canyon. Not through watching a video taken from a roller coaster ride in action. These things can make us think about what it must be like but it does not recreate the feeling to any comparable measure. How about if we are wearing virtual headsets that ‘put us’ at the Grand Canyon and on the roller coaster? Have we then experienced them? For all intents and purposes we can say we have, but how how real does it need to become for the two experiences to be considered the same? We have all viewed ourselves in the mirror- but is that the same as when we view( the parts of ourselves we are able to) ourselves ‘in the flesh’? Viewing our faces backwards in a looking glass of some sort is the only way we will ever see ourselves- and that works fine for us. But what if we were prevented from seeing other things in any other way than through a looking glass? After all, it is a flat picture plane and not the same thing as seeing something in real space. But doesn’t our eye take things in as a flat picture plane and it is only our mind that translates this in to real space? Both are simply picture planes- but one is a picture plane inside the picture plane are vision is forever trapped inside of. 
I would like to devise a piece of work that explores this idea, with the over head them focusing on the illusions of reality and how these will only become more and more blurred with future generations of advancements in the virtual reality. I would also like this to touch on the idea that we actually scientifically achieve controlling the brain and mind effectively enough to make a dream like (controllable) virtual reality with out the use of any aiding devices- purely by wiring the brain up and sending certain waves?? etc through it. 
That is a wider idea that I would like to explore further at some point in the future- as for this essay I hope that I might spark conversation about this for discussions at another time. 
Conceptual art has, among many other things, created an art world that focuses less, or at least differently, to the material object than in previous movements. It is the idea that should be the main focus of the work, and the materials used and composed to present this concept are secondary and serving to the concept. It therefor can be argued that conceptual art holds little or no value to the actual object that it is but does obviously attract value nonetheless due to the nature of our current art world and its commercialism. It is argued that most conceptual artworks could easily be recreated by another person(s) without directly subtracting from the strength and integrity of the work. Video work is a medium which is particularly concerned with this debate. Our world is becoming more and more virtual and our artworks are as well. Art conservationists now include a whole realm of experts hired by museums and galleries to keep their digital archive updated and accessible- keeping all software current and all files backed up multiple times.  Museum and gallery storage facilities no longer stem soley from warehouses and temperature controlled rooms- now they also need to buy virtual storage, whether it be online or in hard drives and back up systems. The amount of information saved, maintained and valued is astounding to think about. The volumes of information we keep digitally is vast and with this comes a new type of responsibility. 
We are quite used to the idea that real things can’t always been seen or imagined (like digital waves intersecting every inch of our lives at all times). Real does not mean physically real- and that doesn’t mean it is real like love or hate. They are emotions- they are not things. The internet is a thing but it is not visible and it can not satisfactorily be visual described. Virtual reality is a real thing in that it is virtual at the same time- but will, or when rather, will the two become eerily hard to decipher?
My work starts way further back from this point- it engages in ideas linked to what makes us feel we have experienced a work of art. If I propose to show a sculpture but instead I show a video of the scuplture- have I mislead the curator? How about if the sculpture is there, but the audience is never allowed a straight view sight of the piece? I propose to exhibit a perspex light sculpture as my piece, but instead of the audience seeing the sculpture they will be offered different ways of viewing it which are live, but are being transmitted or reformatted or replicated. I propose to do this with few different techniques:(I may use the cube installation instead of the perspex sculpture- the whole thing will be very dark)
Pepper’s Ghost
2 mirrors so the view is not flipped but twice reflected. 
camera obscura
live video feed projected (in 3-D?)
reflection in oil on floor?

What I want to focus my research on is the line between reality and anything else. And how easy this can actually be distorted through not understanding (but at the same time understanding the possibilities)  how or what an object is and where it came from.
Point of interest: In making a 3-d image by shifting one of the two identical images to the right or left you can upset the vision and its perception by aligning two components in such a way that one visibly sits on top of the other throughout the rule of interposition but in shifting it the opposite way it makes the object sitting on top move to the back and vice verse- leaving the eye not understanding what it is seeing. It somehow flattens the image and disturbs the vision and harmony.
I have never been interested in psi-fi as an idea. I am interested in what the future holds- and the origins of the universe. I still find it fascinating to try and fathom the beginning of everything. It sounds ridiculous, but only because we (the laymen) long ago realised this idea was beyond our grasp- and the hope of trying to discover it is a waste of time. But these ideas are everywhere, our society makes light of them to ease the idea of not knowing- of essentially having zero control over our lives. Reality is what our eyes see, and the way our brains learn to understand that information. To adore a painting for its flatness- is that not the adoration for being newly born and seeing the world with zero depth perception? Is that not trying to relive a long lost state of being? Before association was so convaluded by the world that our thoughts were no longer our own. Our vision shows us our reality, and knowing that we can reach out and feel it and smell it and hear it justifies its reality. 

Map of exhibition :::: would be a floor plan showing in center? an object labeled on map as exhibit. Around this would be the various points where the exhibit could be viewed indirectly. They would be labeled as viewing station 1, viewing station 2, etc. It is hoped the viewer would view the piece and then questions why they never saw they actual ‘exhibit’ as shown on the map. It is the reaction to this realisation that I suppose I am most interested in. (in addition to the responses from the content of the exhibit and its viewing stations)
Does the audience feel they have seen the piece- or just documentation of the piece. This bring sup another interesting point to do with art and documentation. the two very often can be indistinguishable from one another. Is the piece of art the photograph of the installation or the installation itself? This is answered by the artist, it is their choice. Where should one stop in the replicating and transforming of an image? It is as difficult to answer as when a painter questions when a painting is finished. It is the artists choice alone. 
So the artist chooses the reality she/he wishes their work to present to the world. It is a reality chosen by the artist, and it is the artists reality in some form. If, as an artist, you are engaged with this process of replicating and transforming etc, given the plethora of multi media arts in the fine art world at the moment, the choice of at what point and through what media should I show my work arises. I am a painter- but I want to work int he 3 dimensional. But then I document  that work which leads me into video- and then video manipulation- only to then project that translation/transformation onto a flat surface again. This is the time to send information all around the world because we can- and it is monumental. I want to take this pairing and digitise it in 50 different ways and see what happens. I can do this. The beauty of different mediums and medias with in fine art is that we can intertwine them as much as we want in every possible way but they will remain there own certain identity within the homogenous? mix. There are different rules when working with the digital (or the not real). Physical properties do not exist anymore and instead there are a lot of digital ones that require just as much attention and detail. Not every element will work together directly but there is generally some sort of process of transformers and reformatting that will connect all of these if for any reason one wanted to. A collage of the digital.

http://www.contempaesthetics.org/newvolume/pages/article.php?articleID=390
Bell, it will be recalled, insisted that only the internal relations of a work are of aesthetic merit; everything else was irrelevant and could be supplied equally well by other, non-art means. All the spectator's emotions and beliefs were to be discounted, a requirement for disinterestedness in its strongest possible form.
If the work is of any interest, it will offer the viewer spatial dispositions which to some degree surprise him with the realization that the relationship of such elements is not as he has always supposed they must be; for example, that it is possible for a circle intersected by several lines to come to simulate a series of triangles.[8] It thus becomes part of the viewer's experience that there is at least one member of the class of, for example, circles, that has unfamiliar and noteworthy features. The viewer has learned something; previous assumptions have been modified, and at least for a while fresh insight will be carried into subsequent encounters. Thus, interaction with the work depends on the viewer's past and amends the future, in contrast with the state of hermetic isolation indicated by strong disinterestedness.
http://elaboyd.com/?page_id=414
Ela Boyd: For example, in the context of the course everyone regarded my digital smart object image as virtual, synthetic, fake; a copy, sign or symbol of a physical object, not an actual object in and of itself. Perhaps it’s the flatness of the object’s dimensional character or its intangibility that blocks one from seeing these digital objects as actual, but such an emphasis on tangibility becomes a form of blindness.- Ela Boyd——But it could never be seen in two places at the same time. When the camera reproduces a painting, it destroys the uniqueness of its image. As a result, its meaning changes. Or, more exactly, its meaning multiplies and fragments into many meanings.Regardless of the shift in meaning, the object is described as one object that has a decentralized character and travels to reveal itself. Just as the object travels through electrical cables, to emit from a TV or computer screen, the object also travels through our consciousness from one person to another, until it garners more and more attention: making it more “real”, by means of agreement.—-This transmutates the dimensional form into an image back onto the dimensional form then into an appearance of a light image object that is both flat (on the wall) and dimensional (layers of light giving the appearance of depth). Moving from the 3d form into 2d back to 3d then to a mixed dimensional appearance is a strategy I will continue to explore within my practice.—-In this way it seems we both take in and project out imagery. As an artist, I’m fascinated by glass doors and windows that reflect light phenomena of their surrounding spaces. It’s as if these spaces are projecting outward from multiple directions simultaneously and its only captured via the glass, the screen, the metallic surface or the reflection.—Perspective makes the single eye the centre of the visible world.—Media theorist, Anne Friedberg, compares vision strategies, “Although the algorithmic constructions found in video games, in quicktime panoramas, in virtual reality systems continue to rely on digital simulacra of perspectival space, not all digital space is designed to suggest three dimensions. Instead, the vernacular “space” of the computer screen has more in common with surfaces of cubism–frontality, suppression of depth, overlapping layers–than with the extended depth of Renaissance perspective.”14— In the exhibition, the physical objects are mere mechanisms to reveal energetic light phenomena, which I have already asserted to be an actual object in itself. —Intersubjectivity happens in the in-between spaces, captured on the transparent screen or window.—Anne Friedberg writes on perspective within screens and windows: “The screens of cinema, television, and computers open “virtual windows” that ventilate the static materialities and temporalities of their viewers. A “windowed” multiplicity of perspectives implies new laws of “presence”–not only here and there, but also then and now–a multiple view–sometimes enhanced, sometimes diminished–out the window.”2



 above MFA 2, 2014-2015







___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TERM 3 Jan-July 2014:

-The sublime may inspire horror, but one receives pleasure in knowing that the perception is a fiction.-

  1.  Beardsley, Monroe C. "History of Aesthetics". Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 1, p. 27, Macmillan, 1973. But, Edmund Burke disagreed. "Nor is it, either in real or fictitious distresses, our immunity from them which produces our delight...it is absolutely necessary that my life should be out of any imminent hazard, before I can take a delight in the sufferings of others, real or imaginary...it is a sophism to argue from thence, that this immunity is the cause of my delight...." A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, Part I, Section XV.

http://hyperallergic.com/116474/accessing-data-through-design-in-the-history-of-visualizing-science/

Accessing Data through Design in the History of Visualizing Science

INFINITY, Edmund Burke (1729–1797).  On the Sublime and Beautiful. The Harvard Classics.  1909–14.
http://www.bartleby.com/24/2/208.html

http://www.uri.edu/personal/szunjic/philos/subl.htm -IMMANUEL KANT
Analytic of the Sublime


Beauty as consumable and Sublime as consuming you.-- both representing feeling of solitude?
the idea of beauty is we want to consume it, and with the sublime we want to be surrounded by it. whether possible or not (ie. sublime could be view into microscope and awareness of the vastness of the smallness)
-could the sublime have been left behind because it is by its very essence unspeakable?

The Scalpel and the Soul, which won the Nautilus Book Award. In a video about this book, Dr. Hamilton speaks out about

“things that medical science say should not be possible.”

Hamilton explains that similar strange events occur in hospitals around the USA, but doctors are afraid to talk about them, lest they lose credibility.
Hamilton recounts an operation he had done on a young woman whose blood vessel ruptured at the base of her brain. They put her on a bypass pump that takes over the functions of the heart and the lungs. Then they slowly cooled her body down and then turned off the pump for 25 minutes, during which the heart and the brain stopped working completely with no blood flowing. Dr. Hamilton assures that during this period,

“She is completely dead by every criteria we have”.

In this state, the ruptured blood vessel is repaired. During the period of the operation there happened to be some private conversations between the staff members. One of the nurses announced that she is getting engaged. After the successful operation and reanimation, Dr. Hamilton visited his patient in recovery. Hamilton recalls:

“She starts telling us about this private conversation, but word for word, right down to the jewelry store where they bought the ring! That’s impossible – her brain had absolutely no electrical activity! So the question is; where were these memories made? The idea that a consciousness can exist and make memories independent of the brain is a startling finding.” 

There are thousands of people who have had out-of-body experiences. There are even medical reports where patients under full anesthesia were able to witness and correctly disclose incidents that happened in other rooms during the operation. In the narrow concept of skeletonism, it is impossible to explain how people under full anesthesia can witness their own operation and events in other rooms. In order to preserve the old paradigm of skeletonism, these events have been blacklisted as paranormal and banished into the chamber of taboos by those who are not prepared to learn the sublime lesson that the self is beyond the material body.

http://neurosciencenews.com/how-your-eyes-deceive-you-neuroscience-optical-illusion/

INFINITE SUBLIME

Heisenberg's principle- JT:  Yes. There is a truth in light. That is, you only get light by burning material. The light that you get is representative of what is burned. So whether you take hydrogen or helium, as in the sun, or whether you decide to burn xenon in a bulb, or neon, or tungsten wire, something must be burned to get this light. The light that comes off this material burned, is characteristic of that material burned, at the temperature at which it is burned. So you can then put a filter in between or you can bounce it off paint, but there is truth in light.      There are some very interesting experiments that were done several years ago. They show that light is aware that we are looking. - See more at: http://www.conversations.org/story.php?sid=32#sthash.7Kbul85v.dpuf


illusionary surfaces:
mirage
can be caused by refraction (pencil in water)
rainbows
Fata Morgana
 mirages and Fata Morgana. These are caused by the change of the refractive index of air with temperature.

idea- sandblast/sand clear perspex only on exactly the surface that will be projected onto.

__________________
analogue definition electronics (US: "analog") A description of a continuously variable signal or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals.

analog or analogue  (ăn′ə-lôg′)
Adjective
Measuring or representing data by means of one or more physical properties that can express any value along a continuous scale. For example, the position of the hands of a clock is an analog representation of time. Compare digital.
Noun
An organ or structure that is similar in function to one in another kind of organism but is of dissimilar evolutionary origin. The wings of birds and the wings of insects are analogs.

1. analogue.
adj.
2. of or pertaining to a mechanism that represents data by measurement to a continuous physical variable, as voltage or pressure.
3. displaying a readout by a pointer on a dial
rather than by numerical digits: an analog watch.
 
usage The spelling analog  is a US variant of analogue  in all its senses, and is also the generally preferred spelling in the computer industry


Analog
To understand what a digital-to-analog converter, or DAC, is, you have to first understand what digital and analog mean. Analog is a smooth, continuous signal like a sound wave. Tapes and record players stored data as an analog signal. The grooves on the record or magnetic signals on the tape would continuously increase and decrease to show the shape of the sound wave.


Digital
Digital is a more modern way of storing information. A digital system takes snapshots of a continuous process and gives each snapshot a numerical value. For example, a compact disc takes about 22,000 snapshots of an electric signal describing a sound wave every second and records the voltage of that signal. That is called the sampling rate. A digital-to-analog converter turns those snapshots back into a continuous sound wave.


Sponsored Links
Download New Version Snagit 11 Makes Screen & Image Capturing Easy. Try Free Today!
techsmith.com/Snagit



The DAC
The digital analog converter is controlled by a clock cycle--a computer timing circuit that controls its speed. The clock cycle depends on the sampling rate. For example, a CD player's DAC would have a clock that activated it 22,000 times every second. When it is activated, the DAC takes the next digital signal and creates an analog voltage that matches it. By doing this at just the right speed, the signal creates a continuous wave that looks like the original signal.


Filtering
 
Unfortunately, converting digital to analog this way does not create a true analog wave, but something called a stair step wave. Because there is a small jump between each digital reading, the analog wave jumps instead of making a smooth, continuous movement. To remedy this problem, most DACs use a technique called interpolation. They look at two adjacent points on the wave, and guess what values are in between. This greatly reduces the jumps, and makes for a better, less distorted sound.



Read more: http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4968312_analog-digital-converter-work.html#ixzz2vaMlc28M


INTERPOLATION
__________________________


A process of many different mediums and the re-presentation of this data. Multiplication, mirroring, duplicity, continuity verse digital. It aims to explore new technologies and remember their predecessors - and to think about the process they went through/are going through. The work should bring about wonder of the future and remembrance of the past-and how the two are forever linked in an analogue relationship which will never cease. 

I am interested in the idea of reflective surfaces and the history of the use of ‘mirror’, especially in religion and the realm of magic. It is an ancient material that continues to this day to be used in in technological advancement. It has many uses in science and medicine, computers and machinery, everyday uses to assist seeing around corners, behind you, etc. It is still commonly used in magic and art, and as a ‘looking glass’ to view one’s own appearance. The first recorded instances of mirrors in history show their uses as being ritual and religious. It has been proven that mirror like surfaces were deemed by many cultures? to hold spiritual and/or god-like presences and powers. It is the general mystification that I am interested in with reflective surfaces- the way that from the beginning the mirror was seen as magic- and therefor in many ways open to creative interpretation and beliefs. 

The idea of duplicity arises with mirrors, and other reflective surfaces. Sometimes these duplications are crystal clear and other times they are faint. Mirrors can be used to provoke notions of the sublime. The infinity of reflections when you align two mirrors face to face can be a powerful effect approaching the sublime. 

There is a three dimensional effect that can occur when a projection hits one surface and reflects onto an adjoining surface. (Pepper’s Ghost) The combination of duplicity and lack of solidity in the object of reflection allows for the viewer to experience a type of ghost like or holographic image. I’ve found this effective when projecting onto black gloss ceramic tiles sat adjoined on end at a 90 degree angle (as in sat against the two walls in a corner of the room on the floor)



Forgetting is no coincidence- http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140313123235.htm
University of Basel. "We must forget to avoid serious mental disorders, and forgetting is actively regulated." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 March 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140313123235.htm>. --musashi protein

http://www.conversations.org/story.php?sid=32


Text & Essays






http://www.acta.sapientia.ro/acta-philo/C2-1/philo21-12.pdf
-Although in the case of these representational arts cosmic nature constitutes 
the framework of the sublime, today the relationship between technology and 
nature is actually the opposite of this: we perceive nature in a universal dimension, 
through the framework system of technology. H
-The Beauty and the Contemporary Sublime by Jeremy Gilbert-Rolfe
-Is it possible at all to represent the sublime, the unmeasurably great (Kant), 
proportionally and in a worthy way, when it is beyond the thresholds, beyond the 
perceivable and the comprehensible? Doesn’t it in fact have to do with the 
unrepresentable, which is incomprehensible, just as the world, the universe is not 
“conceivable,” either conceptually, or for the media of fine arts?

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2000/aug/19/scienceandnature
  -
Dizzy post-structuralists like this have a shrunken version of the Romantic sublime. Depressingly, the sublime for them is when our imagination is defeated. Sublimity now describes moments when we recognise that any of our ways of comprehending the world are illusions. For Slavoj Zizek, author of The Art of the Ridiculous Sublime (University of Washington Press, £9.95), this includes our conscious senses of ourselves. 
--For the theory men, the sublime is of human manufacture. Gilbert-Rolfe would like us to believe in a "techno-sublime". A geographical idea of limitlessness has given way to a technological one. This is a paradox, for the sublime is precisely what we cannot master, while technology is supposedly what allows us to control nature.
As neither of these theoreticians of sublimity acknowledges, it has for a long time been pure science, not technology, that has given us a sense of the sublime. Now the voids into which we are invited to gaze in amazement are the unimaginably huge ones of Godless space and time.
- Popularisers of science sometimes seem worried about the imputation of reductiveness, and are often keen to assert that the world still inspires awe after science. Richard Dawkins's last book, Unweaving the Rainbow, was dedicated to showing us that the universe is more "wonderful" with science than without it. 
-The beautiful is science in its shapely reductiveness; the sublime is science in its incomprehensibility.
Beauty and the contemporary sublime
Gilbert-Rolfe, Jeremy
The Contemporary Sublime:  Liminal Oscillations---http://www.acsforum.org/symposium2011/papers/hermanson.pdf -----Gilbert-Rolfe observes that "technology has subsumed the idea of the sublime because it, whether to a greater extent or an equal extent than nature, is terrifying 
in the limitless unknowability of its potential..." -----Roger Connah observes: "...the possibility of silence offers not only retreat, 
not only refuge, but respite from the world’s excess." 
3
The Art of Sinking in Poetry- With this essay, Pope introduced the use of the term Bathos (Greek βάθος, depth, the antonym to ὕψος (hupsos), height) to mean a failed attempt at sublimity, a ridiculous failure to sustain it, or, more generally, an anticlimax.

Thus from awe emerges a heightened awareness through reason of the mind that 
comprises the sublime.
8---8 Kant, Immanuel, Critique of Judgment, Trans. J.H. Bernard. Macmillan, London,1951.
-The space, stark contrasts between dark and the light of the symbol provides silence and it is at 
that " intersection of light and silence we become aware of ‘nothingness’, a void at the heart of 
things." 
21
 Here elements of finitude and temporality elucidate limitlessness and eternity, leading 
to the sensation of the sublime.  As Ando noted " the brilliance of a shaft of light, penetrating the 
profound silence of that darkness, amounted to an evocation of the sublime." 
22
Gilbert-Rolfe implied,  if gravity still exists, so too must the 
sublime, albeit, quite transformed.

IDEA TO RECREATE WINDOWS (window boxes?) with different types of 'views'. Views that look vast but the window is hing on wall or in middle of room to prove it is not deep or vast.

'celestial vaulting' p.27

Ganzield (?) p.23

"Light is not so much something that reveals, as the revelation itself" p.17

http://rodencrater.com/friends
Heisenberg's principle

http://www.deutsche-guggenheim.de/e/pressephotos16.php :
Turrell's installations also confound our perceptions by using light to create ambiguous and otherworldly spaces. Space, in the work of both Klein and Turrell, often seems boundless and awesome, but the subject and medium of Turrell's works is light. In early works such as Afrum I, Turrell projects light in corners, creating seemingly three-dimensional shapes. However, these hovering objects flatten and dissolve, depending on which angle they are viewed from. The viewer must allow the eyes and mind to grapple with the spatial uncertainties and vacillation between two-dimensional and three-dimensional forms. Rather than creating a representation of the sublime, Turrell engenders a sublime experience for the viewer.

http://www.conversations.org/story.php?sid=32
 : Greeting the Light interview
   But there is an idea, first of all, of vision fully formed with the eyes closed. Of course the vision we have in a lucid dream often has greater  lucidity and clarity than vision with the eyes open. The fact that we have this vision with the eyes closed is very interesting. And the idea that it's possible to actually work in a way, on the outside, to remind one of how we see on the inside, is something that became more interesting to me as an artist. - See more at:http://www.conversations.org/story.php?sid=32#sthash.7Kbul85v.dpuf

Turrell,  This idea of how we create our reality through this, and in ways that we're not necessarily aware of, is very important. It contributes to this prejudiced perception that we have. And though learning to represent three dimensions in two, has been a great help to our culture in planning and modeling and all that, there are some losses that are interesting.      There is that experiment where a window is made to appear in perspective, so it looks like a trapezoid, and then it's put on a stick against a very flat background- evenly illuminated, and a few feet away- and then it's rotated. We can't tell whether it's going back and forth, or whether it's going fully around. Our guessing is less than fifty percent correct. But then, for this experiment, so-called primitive people, both in New Guinea and in Africa, were tested, and they were unable to see the illusion. They were only able to see what was actually happening. When it was spinning, they saw it as spinning, and when it was going back and forth, that's what they saw.      So certain ways of organizing information can cause some loss. Learning is one path, one way, and we have learned one way, but this also creates a prejudiced perception that we're not totally aware of. - See more at:http://www.conversations.org/story.php?sid=32#sthash.7Kbul85v.dpuf


http://www.acta.sapientia.ro/acta-philo/C2-1/philo21-12.pdf
 - The Sublime in Contemporary Arts

 total internal reflection

Hockney–Falco thesis  Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the Lost Techniques of the Old Masters

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ingres,_Napoleon_on_his_Imperial_throne.jpg


Book of Optics-
Before the writing of the Book of Optics there were two types of theories of vision that were held in contention. One was the extramission or emission theory. This theory was presented by the mathematicians Euclid andPtolemy and asserted that certain forms of radiation are emitted from theeyes conically onto the object which is being seen. The striking of the rayson the object allow the viewer to perceive things such as the color, shape, and size of the object. The opposing theory was the intromission theory held by the followers of Aristotle andGalen which held that agents were transmitted to the eye from either the object or its surroundings and caused perception. 

The camera obscura projects images and was already well known for centuries and documented by Ibn al-Haitham in his Book of Optics of 1011–1021. In 13th-century England Roger Bacon described the use of a camera obscura for the safe observation of solar eclipses, exactly because the viewer looks at the projected image and not the sun itself.

Dutch draper and pioneering microbiologist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), a contemporary of artist Vermeer (and an executor for Vermeer when he died in 1675) in Delft was known to have exceptional lens making skills, having created a single small lenses capable of 200x magnification, far exceeding those of more complex compound microscopes of the period. Indeed his feats of lens making were not matched for a considerable time as he kept aspects of their construction secret; in the 1950s, C.L. Stong used thin glass thread fusing instead of polishing to recreate Leeuwenhoek design microscopes. It was long believed that Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was a master lens grinder (a notion repeated in the recent BBC television documentary "Cell"), however it is now believed[by whom?] that he came upon a relatively simple method of making small, high quality glass spheres by heating and manipulating a small rod of soda lime glass.
Metal mirrors


Jan van Eyck's 1434 paintingArnolfini Portrait showing a convex mirror
On his website, Falco also claims Schechner overlooked manuscript evidence for the use of mirrors made from steel and other metals, as well as numerous metal artefacts that belie the claim that sufficiently large and reflective metal mirrors were unavailable, and that other contributors to the Early Science and Medicine volume relied on Schechner's mistaken work in dismissing the thesis.[15]
In Jan van Eyck's 1434 painting Arnolfini Portrait a convex mirror is also clearly visible in the centre of the painting (Van Eyck also left his signature above this mirror).



What Is “Time-Based Media”?: A Q&A with Guggenheim Conservator Joanna Phillips

illusionary surfaces:
mirage
can be caused by refraction (pencil in water)
rainbows
Fata Morgana
 mirages and Fata Morgana. These are caused by the change of the refractive index of air with temperature.

idea- sandblast/sand clear perspex only on exactly the surface that will be projected onto.

__________________
analogue definition electronics (US: "analog") A description of a continuously variable signal or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals.

analog or analogue  (ăn′ə-lôg′)
Adjective
Measuring or representing data by means of one or more physical properties that can express any value along a continuous scale. For example, the position of the hands of a clock is an analog representation of time. Compare digital.
Noun
An organ or structure that is similar in function to one in another kind of organism but is of dissimilar evolutionary origin. The wings of birds and the wings of insects are analogs.

1. analogue.
adj.
2. of or pertaining to a mechanism that represents data by measurement to a continuous physical variable, as voltage or pressure.
3. displaying a readout by a pointer on a dial
rather than by numerical digits: an analog watch.
 
usage The spelling analog  is a US variant of analogue  in all its senses, and is also the generally preferred spelling in the computer industry


Analog
To understand what a digital-to-analog converter, or DAC, is, you have to first understand what digital and analog mean. Analog is a smooth, continuous signal like a sound wave. Tapes and record players stored data as an analog signal. The grooves on the record or magnetic signals on the tape would continuously increase and decrease to show the shape of the sound wave.


Digital
Digital is a more modern way of storing information. A digital system takes snapshots of a continuous process and gives each snapshot a numerical value. For example, a compact disc takes about 22,000 snapshots of an electric signal describing a sound wave every second and records the voltage of that signal. That is called the sampling rate. A digital-to-analog converter turns those snapshots back into a continuous sound wave.


Sponsored Links
Download New Version Snagit 11 Makes Screen & Image Capturing Easy. Try Free Today!
techsmith.com/Snagit



The DAC
The digital analog converter is controlled by a clock cycle--a computer timing circuit that controls its speed. The clock cycle depends on the sampling rate. For example, a CD player's DAC would have a clock that activated it 22,000 times every second. When it is activated, the DAC takes the next digital signal and creates an analog voltage that matches it. By doing this at just the right speed, the signal creates a continuous wave that looks like the original signal.


Filtering
 
Unfortunately, converting digital to analog this way does not create a true analog wave, but something called a stair step wave. Because there is a small jump between each digital reading, the analog wave jumps instead of making a smooth, continuous movement. To remedy this problem, most DACs use a technique called interpolation. They look at two adjacent points on the wave, and guess what values are in between. This greatly reduces the jumps, and makes for a better, less distorted sound.



Read more: http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4968312_analog-digital-converter-work.html#ixzz2vaMlc28M


INTERPOLATION
__________________________



Projection Apparatus And Method For Pepper's Ghost Illusion

Pepper's Ghost- wikipedia

Night Stroll: Geometric Lightscapes Animated on the Streets of Tokyo by Tao Tajima


Marshmallow Laser Feast

Optical Illusions

Mixtape Opera: Interview with Patrick Eakin Young

Top 10 future cities in film

When Legends Never Die: How Technology Is Bringing Rockstars Back to Life


Thresholds between Analog and Digital Representations

The Two Paths of Virtual Reality

The Illusion of Presence in Immersive Virtual Reality during an fMRI Brain Scan

infinity mirror

mini gobo projectors

TateShots: Tony Oursler's Influence Machine


Cory Arcangel

Where abstraction and comics collide: TATE


The short film An Optical Poem, 1938, by the celebrated German-born 
abstract film-maker Oskar Fischinger
further info

Turrell
   Light and Space


        



    

  
         
            
       
        

  
                     
     
   
          Analog versus Digital Art

Thresholds between Analog and Digital Representations

ANALOG IS NOT THE OPPOSITE OF DIGITAL

The Lo-Fi Phenomenon – Analogue versus Digital in the Creative Process

Camera Obscura

The Two Paths of Virtual Reality